Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Cancer Research Ideas - Precision Prevention & Early Detection (Archived)

Advances in genomic technologies should lead to improved prevention and early detection strategies. As we develop a better understanding of common genetic variants that are associated with higher or lower risk of certain cancers, we may be able to use that knowledge to identify individuals who may or may not benefit from prevention strategies. And techniques to analyze bits of tumor DNA (and other molecules) that are released into the blood and other body fluids may enable noninvasive screening for very early cancers.

The submission period for Precision Prevention & Early Detection ideas ended on July 1. However, we encourage you to sign up for regular e-mail updates about the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative at the Cancer Moonshot Milestones web page.

Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Does chemicals in blood correlate to cancer?

Does chemichals measured in blood correlate to different types of cancers? It would be interesting to examine.

Submitted by (@swedish.physician)

What is the research problem :

I don´t know if there are methods to test for a vast range of chemicals in bloood.

How will your solution make a difference :

If sertain types of chemicals were more common in blood of cancerpatients, other people at risk of exposure for chemicals perhaps in their work or drinkingwater could measure their blood levels and if high go through extra testing to exclude cancer.

What is your proposed solution :

Measure Chemicals in blood in cancerpatients and compare with healthy individuals to see if some type of chemical is more common in a specific Group of cancer patients.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Liverspecific Ferritin could help find livermetastasis early

Ferritin measured in the blood has two origins. If the ferritin that leaks out from the liver was measured specifically the chances of detecting livercancer/metastasis or hepatocellurdeath would increase compared to only measuring Serum-Ferritin.

Submitted by (@swedish.physician)

What is the research problem :

Liverspecific ferritin needs to be detected and separated in blood from Serum-Ferritin.

How will your solution make a difference :

By measuring ferritin with origin from the liver you can diagnose livermetastasis earlier than today.

What is your proposed solution :

Design a Clinical Chemistry method to separate liverspecific ferritin from Serum-Ferritin and analyze it. Increased levels of liverferritin should be seen in for example liverdamage or livercancer/livermetastasis.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Early detection is dependent on knowing the genesis of cancer.

Cancer starts with a stalled, or the failure to start, G1 phase of the cell cycle. There are many reasons why this process becomes stalled. Familial cancers fail to start the G1 phase because a mutation prevents it. Adult cancers are stalled G1 phase

Submitted by (@david.hicks)

What is the research problem :

If you don't know when cancer starts, you cannot detect the cancer early.

This is explained in more detail in my attachment. Click on "Comments" to see the attachment.

How will your solution make a difference :

First know thine enemy. More effort must be put into understanding cancer in all its forms. Only then will you be able to design precision medical treatments, and use them early in disease.

What is your proposed solution :

Researchers need to know that the starting point in adult cancers is a stalled G1 phase of the cell cycle. To produce precision medicine, you need to know that different cancers are cellular specific, and also have a familial or sporadic component. Knowing this, and the contents of my attachment, will allow the development of individualized treatment, that in some cases can be provided even before the start of malignancy.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Examine exhaled volatile organic compounds as markers of cancer

By analyzing exhaled volatile organic compounds biomarkers of cancer can be identified. Different patterns of biomarkers could be identified between different groups of patients. The procedure is not invasive and could be used to find lungcancer.

Submitted by (@swedish.physician)

What is the research problem :

VOC is not widely used in detecting lungcancer. VOC from air leaving anus could hopefully help detect coloncancer, this needs to be studied.

How will your solution make a difference :

Lungcancer screening with VOC could be done in individuals with high risk, lungcancer patients could be found earlier than today, hopefully in stage 1, five-year survival will hopefully improve. Hopefully VOC could also be used to find coloncancer.

What is your proposed solution :

VOC in screening for lungcancer should be used more often than today. More research needs to be done to learn more about which substances that should be analyzed and about how results differ in between different groups of patients.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Liver cancer early detection using cloud computing and AI

We propose building an AI application to automate and standardize the screening of patients at high risk of developing liver cancer with the goal of making screening highly accessible and thus finding liver cancer before it is symptomatic

Submitted by (@carla0)

What is the research problem :

While liver cancer’s prevalence rises, fatality rates remain high. Asymptomatic until metastasis, diagnosis is often too late for successful intervention. Accurate detection of liver cancer before metastasis is needed for survival rates to increase

How will your solution make a difference :

We will make liver cancer screening automated, fast and easy, making it more accessible, less technically challenging and less expensive. This would enable routine screening of high-risk patients, increasing the ability to find the cancer earlier

What is your proposed solution :

We propose creating a software application to automate liver cancer screening for high risk patients and for other patients having MR or CT scans for the abdomen. This would make screening more cost effective and standardized globally. We plan to collect retrospective and prospective annotated images from several centers on our cloud platform and train an artificial intelligence system to automatically identify liver cancers in future scans

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Dysbiotic oral microbiomes increase cancer risk and recurrence

Despite advances against other cancers, oral cancer mortality has not improved in 4 decades. Our findings indicate that the oral microbiome increases cancer risk when it is dysregulated, which offers new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Submitted by (@pstashenko)

What is the research problem :

Oral and pharyngeal cancer is common (11th in US) and increasing due to HPV infections, mortality is high, yet there has been little progress in treatment for over 4 decades. New means of diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed.

How will your solution make a difference :

Oral cancer has high recurrence after primary treatment (30-50% within 2 years) as well as high mortality (~50%), and few new treatments are in development. The targeting of dysregulated oral bacterial activities is a new solution to this disease.

What is your proposed solution :

New evidence indicates that our bacterial passengers ('microbiomes') increase cancer development when they become dysbiotic (dysregulated). Using novel, sophisticated microbial metatranscriptomic approaches, we propose to identify the metabolic pathways that dysbiotic oral microbiomes express that increase cancer. These will serve as cancer biomarkers and as targets for interventions that block these pathways and prevent development/recurrence.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Catch 16 Cancers at Earliest Stages: "Blood Biopsies" & CDA Tech

Reinvent screening/early detection by analyzing simple blood tests using multi-level/parameter algorithm & Cancer Differentiation Analysis tech; 30,000 cases confirm CDA identifies16 different cancer types/locations-often before cells form tumors.

Submitted by (@drishaleggitt)

What is the research problem :

93% of patients can survive even aggressive cancers if caught Stage 1. However, many aren't annually screened for multiple cancers due to cost/time/comfort.Traditional tests’ accuracy often unreliable & symptoms not manifest/diagnosed until Stage 2+.

How will your solution make a difference :

CDA’s proven, inexpensive tech requiring only simple blood draw with 75-90% success sensitivity/catching early cancer & specificity/disease’s location. Patients don’t mind noninvasive annual blood draw-doctors find/treat cancer early/save more lives.

What is your proposed solution :

Results from 30K cases prove CDA devices detect 16 different cancers by analyzing simple, non-invasive Blood Biopsies using CDA’s multi -level/parameter diagnostic algorithms & tech- achieving 75-90% sensitivity/specificity-measurably more accurate than most conventional screening. CDA’s inexpensive, produces no patient side effects & generates fewer false positives; patients regularly screen during annual checkup because CDA only a blood test.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Rethinking the Role of Chemicals in Precision Prevention

Recent research in toxicology, epidemiology and cancer biology strongly indicates that toxic industrial chemicals and pollutants are having a significantly greater impact on the incidence of cancer than previously thought.

Submitted by (@katherinebaird)

What is the research problem :

The first complete inventory of carcinogens in humans found 400+ carcinogens. A 2015 investigation explored interactions between cancer hallmark mechanisms and non-carcinogens, suggesting multiple chemicals could act together to cause cancer.

How will your solution make a difference :

The President’s Cancer Panel states, “…the true burden of environmentally induced cancer has been grossly underestimated.” Greater understanding of the influence of chemicals on cancer will reduce the incidence of cancer and save countless lives,

What is your proposed solution :

We need to rethink chemicals and cancer prevention. We should fund projects exploring mechanisms of carcinogenesis and chemical interactions; the carcinogenic potential of chemicals in the market; and development of testing protocols for chemical mixtures. The NIEHS and NTP should be involved in the creation and execution, being ideally positioned to provide collaborative, transparent data-sharing and to develop global research initiatives.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Screen for change in tumor markers to diagnose cancer early

Analyze tumor markers in young healthy adults. Repeat testing these individuals when they are middle age and old to dectect significant change in the tumor markers which indicates the need for further examination of the patient to exclude cancer.

Submitted by (@swedish.physician)

What is the research problem :

Tumor markers are usually analyzed if patients feels sick or are diagnosed with cancer or to evaluate the treatment. I think that tumor markers should be used to detect cancer before the person gets any symtoms, to be able fo find the cancer early.

How will your solution make a difference :

Cancer could be found early,before the patients has noticed any symtoms related to the cancer. The chances of curing the patient from cancer is better than if the cancer is diagnosed at a later stage.

What is your proposed solution :

Analyze levels of tumor markeras in healthy individuals. Compare these results with the results from when the individuas are older. Compare the results to find significant changes that can indicate cancer.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Individual knowledge delivery for cancer surveillance

With the widespread adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHRs), it is now possible to implement clinical decision support (CDS) tools in practice to deliver cancer screening recommendations leveraging individual patient medical information.

Submitted by

What is the research problem :

The advance in cancer research has created cancer screening guidelines. But there is a lack of an efficient workflow for knowledge delivery at the point of care for individual patients.

How will your solution make a difference :

Empower physicians to make decisions leveraging the latest cancer prevention and survivorship knowledge and providing tailored decisions to individual patients

What is your proposed solution :

1) Support research which aims to discover cancer biomarkers and risk factors that are implementable in prediction models

2) Support translational research in developing and evaluating informatics tools for cancer prevention and survivorship

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

New MicroRNA based biomarkers of cancer risk

There are new RNA based genetic differences in people that are strong biomarkers of cancer risk, and need additional study in appropriate clinical trials. Such mutations can be modified by lifestyle, and afford a true opportunity for prevention.

Submitted by (@jweidhaas)

What is the research problem :

Currently there are very limited genetic biomarkers of cancer risk, and those that exist and that are applied are exceedingly rare. MicroRNA based genetic differences are common, can be modified by lifestyle, and represent a potential solution.

How will your solution make a difference :

More common genetic biomarkers of cancer risk, especially those that can be modified by life exposures, would significantly reduce the cancer burden in the population. Such functional mutations offer the opportunity for meaningful cancer prevention.

What is your proposed solution :

One of the first microRNA binding sites mutations identified is the KRAS-variant, which predicts cancer risk primarily for women. This genetic difference is found in 6% of people, and is in up to 25% of newly diagnosed cancer patients. Cancer risk is modified for individuals with the KRAS-variant through estrogen exposure, which impacts this mutation. We propose to launch large collaborative studies of estrogen management for these individuals.

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Precision Prevention & Early Detection

Prevention of Cancer Using Multi-modal Lifestyle Behavior Health

Evidence is mounting for adherence to a healthy lifestyle to reduce cancer risk. A healthy lifestyle pattern defined by tobacco use, alcohol intake, BMI, diet quality & physical activity may reduce risk for incident cancer & mortality. CA Thomson

Submitted by (@tecrane)

What is the research problem :

Despite consistent evidence regarding the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviors to reduce cancer risk and mortality no prospective trials have been conducted to evaluate multiple lifestyle behavior coaching as a strategy to reduce cancer burden.

How will your solution make a difference :

Primary prevention saves the cost & labor of cancer diagnosis & treatment for family members. Cancer patients are at an increased risk for recurrent disease & additional co-morbidites such as CVD, obesity & diabetes, all of which will be reduced.

What is your proposed solution :

We propose a RCT to test the hypothesis that given the appropriate health coaching & lifestyle behavior counseling individuals & families can reduce their cancer risk through the adoption & habitualization of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Utilizing an ehealth communication platform that integrates telephone, email, web & SMS, multi-lifestyle behavior health coaching/behavioral counseling could be disseminated to large populations at risk.

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